Friday, January 4, 2019

Unit testing DynamoDB applications using JUnit5

In a previous post I had described the new AWS SDK for Java 2 which provides non-blocking IO support for Java clients calling different AWS services. In this post I will go over an approach that I have followed to unit test the AWS DynamoDB calls.

There are a few ways to spin up a local version of DynamoDB -

1. AWS provides a DynamoDB local
2. Localstack provides a way to spin up a good number of AWS services locally
3. A docker version of DynamoDB Local
4. Dynalite, a node based implementation of DynamoDB


Now to be able to unit test an application, I need to be able to start up an embedded version of DynamoDB using one of these options right before a test runs and then shut it down after a test completes. There are three approaches that I have taken:

1. Using a JUnit 5 extension that internally brings up a AWS DynamoDB Local and spins it down after a test.
2. Using testcontainers to start up a docker version DynamoDB Local
3. Using testcontainers to start up DynaLite

JUnit5 extension

JUnit5 extension provides a convenient hook point to start up an embedded version of DynamoDB for tests. It works by pulling in a version of DynamoDB Local as a maven dependency:

dependencies {
    ...
 testImplementation("com.amazonaws:DynamoDBLocal:1.11.119")
    ...
}

A complication with this dependency is that there are native components (dll, .so etc) that the DynamoDB Local interacts with and to get these in the right place, I depend on a Gradle task:

task copyNativeDeps(type: Copy) {
 mkdir "build/native-libs"
 from(configurations.testCompileClasspath) {
  include '*.dll'
  include '*.dylib'
  include '*.so'
 }
 into 'build/native-libs'
}

test {
 dependsOn copyNativeDeps
}

which puts the native libs in build/native-libs folder, and the extension internally sets this path as a system property:

System.setProperty("sqlite4java.library.path", libPath.toAbsolutePath().toString())

Here is the codebase to the JUnit5 extension with all these already hooked up - https://github.com/bijukunjummen/boot-with-dynamodb/blob/master/src/test/kotlin/sample/dyn/rules/LocalDynamoExtension.kt

A test using this extension looks like this:

class HotelRepoTest {
    companion object {
        @RegisterExtension
        @JvmField
        val localDynamoExtension = LocalDynamoExtension()

        @BeforeAll
        @JvmStatic
        fun beforeAll() {
            val dbMigrator = DbMigrator(localDynamoExtension.syncClient!!)
            dbMigrator.migrate()
        }

    }
    @Test
    fun saveHotel() {
        val hotelRepo = DynamoHotelRepo(localDynamoExtension.asyncClient!!)
        val hotel = Hotel(id = "1", name = "test hotel", address = "test address", state = "OR", zip = "zip")
        val resp = hotelRepo.saveHotel(hotel)

        StepVerifier.create(resp)
                .expectNext(hotel)
                .expectComplete()
                .verify()
    }
}

The code can interact with a fully featured DynamoDB.

TestContainers with DynamoDB Local Docker


The JUnit5 extensions approach works well but it requires an additional dependency with native binaries to be pulled in. A cleaner approach may be to use the excellent Testcontainers to spin up a docker version of DynamoDB Local the following way:

class HotelRepoLocalDynamoTestContainerTest {
    @Test
    fun saveHotel() {
        val hotelRepo = DynamoHotelRepo(getAsyncClient(dynamoDB))
        val hotel = Hotel(id = "1", name = "test hotel", address = "test address", state = "OR", zip = "zip")
        val resp = hotelRepo.saveHotel(hotel)

        StepVerifier.create(resp)
                .expectNext(hotel)
                .expectComplete()
                .verify()
    }



    companion object {
        val dynamoDB: KGenericContainer = KGenericContainer("amazon/dynamodb-local:1.11.119")
                .withExposedPorts(8000)

        @BeforeAll
        @JvmStatic
        fun beforeAll() {
            dynamoDB.start()
        }

        @AfterAll
        @JvmStatic
        fun afterAll() {
            dynamoDB.stop()
        }

        fun getAsyncClient(dynamoDB: KGenericContainer): DynamoDbAsyncClient {
            val endpointUri = "http://" + dynamoDB.getContainerIpAddress() + ":" +
                    dynamoDB.getMappedPort(8000)
            val builder: DynamoDbAsyncClientBuilder = DynamoDbAsyncClient.builder()
                    .endpointOverride(URI.create(endpointUri))
                    .region(Region.US_EAST_1)
                    .credentialsProvider(StaticCredentialsProvider
                            .create(AwsBasicCredentials
                                    .create("acc", "sec")))
            return builder.build()
        }

        ...
    }
}

This code starts up DynamoDB at a random unoccupied port and provides this information so that the client can be created using this information. There is a little Kotlin workaround that I had to do based on an issue reported here - https://github.com/testcontainers/testcontainers-java/issues/318


TestContainers with Dynalite


Dynalite is a javascript based implementation of DynamoDB and can be run for tests again using the TestContainer approach. This time however there is already a TestContainer module for Dynalite. I found that it does not support JUnit5 and sent a Pull request to provide this support, in the iterim the raw docker image can be used and this is how a test looks like:

class HotelRepoDynaliteTestContainerTest {
    @Test
    fun saveHotel() {
        val hotelRepo = DynamoHotelRepo(getAsyncClient(dynamoDB))
        val hotel = Hotel(id = "1", name = "test hotel", address = "test address", state = "OR", zip = "zip")
        val resp = hotelRepo.saveHotel(hotel)

        StepVerifier.create(resp)
                .expectNext(hotel)
                .expectComplete()
                .verify()
    }

    companion object {
        val dynamoDB: KGenericContainer = KGenericContainer("quay.io/testcontainers/dynalite:v1.2.1-1")
                .withExposedPorts(4567)

        @BeforeAll
        @JvmStatic
        fun beforeAll() {
            dynamoDB.start()
            val dbMigrator = DbMigrator(getSyncClient(dynamoDB))
            dbMigrator.migrate()
        }

        @AfterAll
        @JvmStatic
        fun afterAll() {
            dynamoDB.stop()
        }

        fun getAsyncClient(dynamoDB: KGenericContainer): DynamoDbAsyncClient {
            val endpointUri = "http://" + dynamoDB.getContainerIpAddress() + ":" +
                    dynamoDB.getMappedPort(4567)
            val builder: DynamoDbAsyncClientBuilder = DynamoDbAsyncClient.builder()
                    .endpointOverride(URI.create(endpointUri))
                    .region(Region.US_EAST_1)
                    .credentialsProvider(StaticCredentialsProvider
                            .create(AwsBasicCredentials
                                    .create("acc", "sec")))
            return builder.build()
        }
        ...
    }
}

Conclusion

All of the approaches are useful in being able to test integration with DynamoDB. My personal preference is using the TestContainers approach if a docker agent is available else with the JUnit5 extension approach. The samples with fully working tests using all the three approaches are available in my github repo - https://github.com/bijukunjummen/boot-with-dynamodb

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